Category: Computer Science

What is IP (Internet Protocol)?

1. Short for Internet Protocol, IP is an address of a computer or other network device on a network using IP or TCP/IP. For example, the number “” is an example of such an address. These addresses are similar to an addresses used on a house and is what allows data to reach the appropriate destination on a network and the Internet.

There are five classes of available IP ranges: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E, while only A, B, and C are commonly used. Each class allows for a range of valid IP addresses. Below is a listing of these addresses.

Class Address Range Supports
Class A to Supports 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks.
Class B to Supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks.
Class C to Supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks.
Class D to Reserved for multicast groups.
Class E to Reserved for future use, or Research and Development Purposes.

Ranges 127.x.x.x are reserved for the loopback or localhost, for example, is the common loopback address. Range broadcasts to all hosts on the local network.

IP address breakdown

Every IP address is broke down into four sets of octets that break down into binary to represent the actual IP address. The below table is an example of the IP If you are new to binary, we highly recommend reading our binary and hexadecimal conversions section to get a better understanding of what we’re doing in the below charts.

IP: 255 255 255 255
Binary value: 11111111 11111111 11111111 11111111
Octet value: 8 8 8 8

If we were to break down the IP “”, you would get the below value. In the below table, the first row is the IP address, the second row is the binary values, and the third row shows how the binary value equals the section of the IP address.

166 70 10 23
10100110 01000110 00001010 00010111
128+32+4+2=166 64+4+2=70 8+2=10 16+4+2+1=23

Automatically assigned addresses

There are several IP addresses that are automatically assigned when you setup a home network. These default addresses are what allow your computer and other network devices to communicate and broadcast information over your network. Below is the most commonly assigned network addresses in a home network. 0 is the automatically assigned network address. 1 is the commonly used address used as the gateway. 2 is also a commonly used address used for a gateway. – 254 Addresses beyond 3 are assigned to computers and devices on the network. 255 is automatically assigned on most networks as the broadcast address.

If you have ever connected to your home network, you should be familiar with the gateway address or, which is the address you use to connect to your home network router and change its settings.

Getting an IP address

By default the router you use will assign each of your computers their own IP address, often using NAT to forward the data coming from those computers to outside networks such as the Internet. If you need to register an IP address that can be seen on the Internet, you must register through InterNIC or use a web host that can assign you addresses.

Anyone who connects to the Internet is assigned an IP address by their Internet Service Provider (ISP) who has registered a range of IP addresses. For example, lets assume your ISP is given 100 addresses, This means the ISP owns addresses to and is able to assign any address in that range to its customers. So, all these addresses belong to your ISP address until they are assigned to a customers computer. In the case of a dial-up connection, you are given a new IP address each time you dial into your ISP. With most broadband Internet service providers because you are always connected to the Internet your address rarely changes and will remain the same until the service provider requires it to be changed.

Connecting to the Internet

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Below is the video showing how to install ns2 ,network stimulator on Ubuntu :

In this type of SQL injection as the name suggest we just combi9ne two sql queries or we can say we use a combination of two sql statements.

The syntax of the most advance level of SQL entry known as UNION OF ALL is

SQL statement 1


SQL statement 2

Port numbers and their ranges

The port numbers are basically divided into three ranges: the Well Known Ports,the Registered Ports, and the Dynamic
or Private Ports.

From 0 to 1023 are the well known ports.

From 1024 to 49151 are the registered ports.

from 49152 to 65535 are the dynamic or private ports.

It can be a common problem friends that all a sudden all your USB ports will stop working , or your windows will irritatingly starts prompting  “USB not recognized” but for the error there is nothing to be worried , use the following steps and get a rid from this:





Go to device manager.

click on USB controllers , you will see a list of USb hub ports, click on each of them and unistall them one by one .

When you are finished uninstalling all your Usb ports just power off your pc and restart it after a period of 20 minutes.

When motherboard will boot it will install all the usb drivers again and you will find that all your usb ports will start working fine.

NOTE: In case of a laptop after unistalling all the usb ports shut down the laptop, remove its battery and then put it back after a period of 10 – 20 min.

Many times we need to connect two or more computers may be for gaming purposes or public data transfers for that we need a adhoc network i.e. the computer to computer network.

For creating a ad-hoc network simply follow the steps below:

1 Open network and sharing center in you computer. on set up a new connection or network.

4. now choose set up a wireless ad hoc network.

5. give a name to your network, and password if you want.

6. your ad-hoc is ready , and starts waiting for other users to connect.

Many times we come across the situation when we don’t have a pen drive or any data traveler device to transfer the data between the two computers.

Then we have only an option of bluetooth ,but as data speed is very slow we can try try for an other option through wireless network.

We can get a  data transfer speed of 600 kb/s to 1 mb/s through an adhoc i.e. computer to computer network.

The following are some simple steps how can we do that:

1.Create a adhoc network and let other computer to connect through it.

2.Now give the ips to both the computers,remember to give same class ips to both the computers.

3.Then go to run and type \\ip of other computer , then press enter.

4.Enter the username and password if enabled on that computer.

5.You will get an window open with the files shared on that client computer,now You can easily share the data by just making it


Write us if you get any problem during the same and don’t forget to share it.Enjoy!!!

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